Harare-History Handout, Mastering History [Advanced level] ©2017, Brian Maregedze.
Harare-History Handout, Mastering History [Advanced level] ©2017, Brian Maregedze.
The main thrust of this History Handout is to equip Advanced level History students with important information on Mastering essay writing as a skill to be attained at the end of the two year course. Sample introductions, structure of a proper Advanced Level History essay, question and answers models are clearly articulated based on experience from a dynamic young Historian and blogger of Divinityhistoryalevel.blogspot.com. As the writer is a Zimbabwean Historian, more of Zimbabwean History paper is addressed. Hence, those who have the quest to pass can utilize this source which covers important topics in African History
HISTORY ADVANCED LEVEL
About the writer
Brian Maregedze is a Master of Arts in African History [MAFH] candidate, holder of a Special Honours degree in History (S.H.S) and Bachelor of Applied Arts Major in History and Religious Studies (B.A.A) all from the University of Zimbabwe. He is currently a Teaching Assistant at the University of Zimbabwe in the department of History and he is also passionate about research, writing and contacting Seminars for High school students. He is also the co-author of Advanced Level Family and Religious Studies; Focus on Christianity and Islam (2018).
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Writing Essays is the most imperative skill that A-level Historians need to acquire. It is undisputed that one may acquire all information to do with sources (reading material) at Advanced level but without Mastering Essay writing as a skill all becomes vanity and or a chasing after the wind. Again it has to be observed that essay writing is a skill which can be acquired through practice. One cannot become a seasoned essay writer without enjoying the exercises of writing like always. Just like athletes need more practice, exercises to master essentials for the final day of competition so candidates should do likewise. For one to acquire grade A+ the following sections should assist one to make it possible for they have worked for many students before. If one uses these explanations as a manual guide success is guaranteed.
Unfortunately, a good essay does not just consist of writing all you know on a given topic; at A-Level, examiners tend to insist on tricky things like answering the question, analysis rather than narrative and inclusion of information to support your points. Unless you are particularly gifted, these skills take time to learn and poor marks are common early on. Fortunately, these skills can be learnt, so don’t despair if your early attempts in lower sixth are torn to shreds by your teacher. Listen to his advice, read his comments and work on improving for the next time.
Although every essay will demand a unique answer, there are certain techniques common to all essays which will ensure that you don’t go too far wrong.
Failing to understand the question as it is, is as easy as failing to answer the question. One should be able to read and understand the question period. This may sound too obvious to mention, but all too often, someone sees a word or a phrase in the title and proceeds to reel off a prepared answer without considering whether what they are writing actually addresses the question asked. Read the question several times and make sure you understand what it is asking.
Analyze the Question
When you have read the question you should then analyze it. This is vital – many people do not make the distinction between what the question is asking and what the question is about. By breaking down the title into key words (the issue to be considered) and topic words (the subject matter), you can ensure that you actually answer the question rather than provide a simple narrative of events. A look at a couple of examples will show you what I mean:
° What measures did Mussolini take to consolidate his control over Italy from 1922 to 1925?
° Main Topic – Mussolini’s attack on political opponents, the parliamentary system nod the Fascist party.
° Key Words – 1922, 1925, measures, consolidate, HIS control
• In what ways did radicalism impact the Army, Army leaders and MPs between 1646 and 1653?
° Main Topic – the effect of radicalism on politics
° Key Words – army, army leaders, MPs, 1646, 1653
It is also true that failing to plan is as easy as planning to fail. This is without doubt, the most imperative part of writing an essay. It is your brainstorming that determines what approach you take to answering the question. If you have written your plan properly, you will know exactly what your answer is going to be. This stops you from falling into the trap of deciding on the path of your essay whilst you are writing it. More importantly, your plan will ensure that you actually answer the question.
verything you write must be related to the question, and without a plan it is all to easy to lose focus and write irrelevant nonsense. Not answering the question is the most common failing in A-level essays, and there is nothing a teacher likes doing more than crossing out huge chunks of an essay with the word ‘irrelevant’! Write a good plan and this won’t happen to you.
The introduction is one of those areas that leave some students suffocating whilst some start to write with enthusiasm and energy. Once you have made your plan, you are ready to begin. How do you start an essay? Unfortunately, there is no hard and fast rule – it will depend very much on the individual title. However one thing is absolutely certain, your introduction must make a good impression. It is the first thing anyone will read; if it fails to grip, the rest of the essay will have to be doubly good to retrieve the situation. In as much as writing essays at Advanced level is an academic exercise meant to inform rather than to entertain one has to write a well-informed introduction.
As a classroom practitioner and essayist I have always encouraged students to understand one key issue when writing an introduction. The illustration is very simple and it goes like, everyone both male and female has their dress code and controls. To ladies they wear dresses with some being too long, others average, whilst others too short (mini).
Interesting to note is that one has to be sensitive in dressing to cover the essentials simultaneously retaining the interest.
Therefore a good introduction is not supposed to be too short or too long but rather in the same vein cover the essential that is highlight relevant points that have to address the requirements of the question.
There are three main ways of writing an introduction (notice that these are the main ways, not the only ways):
he safe approach is to simply state what you are going to do, sum up in a few sentences what the question is asking and say how you are going to answer it. Another way to begin is to actually state your answer in the introduction and then go on to prove your case in the essay. This approach is far more interesting because it shows you have a definite point of view, and are prepared to argue it. It shows the examiner that you have planned your essay, know what you are going to say and hopefully will support it with good evidence.
The final type of introduction is far more individual. You might use an interesting quote, describe a significant event, take issue with the question or otherwise set the scene. It is hard to define this type of introduction, but the effect will be to show that you have complete mastery of the subject, understand the issues at stake and will be dealing with them thoroughly. This kind of start will grip readers, impress them and make them want to read on. It is also very difficult to write
“Louis xvi’s blunders contributed to the outbreak of the French Revolution”. How valid is this assertion
Louis xvi’s blunders relates and or refers to the errors, flaws, wrong decisions as well as miscalculations made in an attempt to address and curb the financial crisis in France. Some of the blunders made by Louis xvi as the absolute King of France include the involvement of the French troops in the American war of independence, firing able finance ministers, demonstrating indecisiveness on the taxation issue among others. However, it has to be observed that other factors which were within France contributed directly or indirectly to the outbreak of the French revolution such as the Influence of French Philosophers, the poor harvests of 1788-9 to mention only these among many. Hence, this essay seeks to analyse the validity of the above assertion.
The main body of the essay is where you prove your case. Once you have planned your essay, this section will almost write itself, it is just a question of filling in the gaps. You will know what paragraphs you are going to write and what information you are going to use. However, remember that you are answering a question, not narrating a story. You have already identified the key issues in the question, now it is time to use them. Every paragraph must refer in some way to the key words and issues or it is danger of being irrelevant. Be ruthless – you will have far more information than you need and must select carefully only that which you need to support your points.
However, it is also important to avoid writing an essay which consists purely of no arguments – you must not make unsubstantiated claims. For everything you say you must have supporting facts or examples – otherwise your essay will be full of assertions and no more than hot air. This balance between analysis and supporting detail is what makes up the skill of essay writing, and takes time and practice to learn. If you can learn from your mistakes early on and put the effort in over the two-year course, you will be able to write a good essay.
Make Statements, and then explain what you meant by the statement and be sure to illustrate your argument with examples and information
The conclusion is where you sum up what you have said in the essay. It is absolutely vital that you write one. This is the last thing the examiner reads and counts for a great deal. A good conclusion can rescue an indifferent essay and set the seal on a good one. It is here that you draw together the threads of your argument and hammer home your points, leaving the reader in no doubt as to your answer. You should refer explicitly to the key words that you identified in the question and reinforce the points you made in the main body. Above all it should contain nothing new; it is simply a restatement of your argument. If there is anything you forgot to say earlier, leave it out, it is too late now!
valuate the interdisciplinary approach of historical sources in the reconstruction of the pre-historic Zimbabwean past. 
The key issue is an examination of historical sources and their utility in recovering the history of pre-historic Zimbabwe
Evaluate approach includes all sources of history and find out their merits and demerits.
Candidates are expected to focus on the main sources giving specific examples.
The main sources include;
Linguistics and Botany.
The interdisciplinary role played by these sources in recovering history should be outlined.
Archaeology-the scientific study of the remains of the past. Examples of the remains are Chinese ceramic suggesting trade between people at Great Zimbabwe with those from Far East, cattle bones illustrating livestock production at the Iron Age sites. Jewelers-beads, bangles all being items acquired through trade. Cowries shells, Chinese glass, arrow spears, broken pottery all suggesting a diversified economic way of life. Limited in that details lack especially on King Lists, totems, silent method, some information missing due to time factor. However, useful in that the information can be tested and verified. Provides information on agriculture, trade, mining and pastoralist.
ritten records- provide primary and secondary information. Information is from documents produced by Arabs and the Swahili recorded mainly on trade between Great Zimbabwe and the Far East. The origins, rise and expansion of the states particularly Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe. The trade relations that existed between the states during the prehistoric period are among other written information provided. Limited in that the writer can be biased, secondary information is prone to distortion. However, useful as they provide detailed information.
Oral tradition- oral spoken stories passed from generation to generation. Only those elders who still remember the stories (kept events in memories) can supply information e.g. King lists, totems, trade relations, rise and fall of the pre-historic Zimbabwean sites and states. It may be regarded as the chief source and offers detailed information. However, it is prone to exaggeration and distortion.
Rock art- mainly pictures drawn by the San. Help in reconstructing the history as clearly drawn pictures of animal hunted, economic activities such as fishing, gathering, and hunting among others were left on rocks and in caves. Rock art in general depicts the political, social, economic and religious way of life during the pre-historic era. The limitations depend on the historian’s competence in recovering the history from the pictures drawn. Hence, it’s prone to misrepresentation of facts projected on the pictures.
Anthropology- focuses much on the development that took place as a result of advanced technological skills. Mankind portrayed skills on pottery making, iron tool making and use. Intermarriages and the cultural dynamics which were so clear all can explain the existence rise.
inguistic- traces on origins of Bantu speaking people and their eventual settlement in Southern Africa. Linguistic evidence also contributes though to a limited extent in the reconstruction of the pre-historic Zimbabwean past. Focus is on origins of the spoken languages.
One of the challenges that class room practitioners encounter when imparting historical knowledge to candidates on Oral traditions has to do with giving practical examples which assist candidates to remember and know that historical learning is not only about the past, but also we can gain information about the present. One of the simplest approach that I have used over the years as a result of my interaction with Dr. James Muzondidya when l was still an undergraduate candidate is that of reciting my totem as a tool to start to reflect on the use of Oral traditions and relevance in our daily lives. The following is my totem as l learned it from reading A.C Hodza poetry book.
Maita zvenyu Madyirapazhe,
Shava huru yakapamba Gona,
Gara ramasango, chipauro chamafuta,
Godzamuto, mhuru inobva Gona,
Vezheve tsvuku, veRufura,
Vane chitanga chisizari n’ombe
Chinotozara musi weZvita.
Maita vari musakandya, maita vari Njaidza
Vari mhiri kwaNyazvidzi, vari Hwiru,
Vari Raubwi, vari muhari huru,
Vari Chikomo cha Mwabwazhe, Chisema, Sambiri,
Chikara wapazhe, chifambanamana,
Chifuramakuru, mazondo tinodya,
Maita vari svikire, vari Maturi, vari Chivende,
Vari Hibvumwe, Chiputsamukuru Godzamuto,
Shava yangu yiyi, Chitanga, Chikanyamatope.
Maita vari Mupfukudza
Kunodyiwa boora rechiromo,
Vari chikatanwa, vari Boromoka, vari Mandira.
Ganyamatope, hekanhi Madyirapazhe,
Kuti vane zhara kuti vaponewo,
Mareranherera, matsikapasi kuzorora kuvata,
Hekanhi Gutu, hekanhi weGona, ndisengei
Senganhundwa, sengamusoro pane romo neziso.
Hekanhi Mhandamakan’a, matakuradumbu,
Matangakunwa muviri une nyota,
Mutsikapachena nepane rima,
Bumazvirema, hekanhi Masengedzwa,
Teveratsimba mutsvairo wenzira.
Hekanhi Murendo, Mashayachirasshwa,
Mafuta tinozora, runyanga ingonan’ombe,
Gumbo mubhadha, dovo tinowadza.
Nyama tinodya, mukaka tinonwa,
Muswe unhawo, ndove inodzura mumba,
Zvaitwa Chitova, mushukuru we Gonan’ombe,
Aiwa zvaitwa Gumbo,
Matsikapasi kuzorora huvata,
Matangakunwa muviri une nyota,
Tevera tsimba mutsvairo wezhira,
Maita vari Maturi,
Shanga iri muuchi,
Godzavakadzi varume vachifa nechina,
Chidonha mukaka changu chichi,
Vari muhari huru,
Baba vangu muriritiri,
Vari chikwidzire chamabwe machena,
Shava huru yakapamba Gona,
Dupo Guru Ravasikana vokwaGutu
Chitanga chisizare n’ombe,
Chinozara musi weZvita,
veShava huru yakapambe Gona,
Sengamusoro pane room neziso,
In pairs or groups, learn to recite your totem/s or any totem such that discussions can be made based on themes found in each poem.
iscuss the usefulness of Archaeological evidence in understanding the Early Iron Age in Zimbabwe.
The key issue is the examination of evidence from the Early Iron Age sites in Zimbabwe
Usefulness suggests importance, relevance and or value
There is need to write also the weaknesses of archaeology in relation to the demands of the question.
Evidence of Early Iron Age include
Gokomere site- pottery remains resemble that of East Africa
Leopards’ kopje-evidence of pastoralist, cattle, sheep/ goat bones
Mabveni- evidence of early agriculture
Makuru- evidence of international trade. Beads dated 960AD
Ziwa-evidence of agricultural activities in the form of terraces
Mapungubwe-evidence of agriculture, pastoralism, trade and mining.
Great Zimbabwe-evidence of agriculture, pastoralism and, trade and mining.
3. How accurate is the view that the most fundamental changes of the early Iron Age cultures in Zimbabwe were economic?
The main issue is the assessment of the importance of the economic changes brought about by the advent of iron as well as other changes in the political and social spheres.
Candidates are expected to argue that iron technology had a crucial impact on the economic life of societies which then affected other activities.
conomic activities like agriculture led to increase in population, polygamous marriages began as well as permanent settlements
Accumulation of wealth through cattle rearing and trade impacted on politics hence the formation of chiefdoms and states.
4. Examine the theories that have been put forward to explain the origins and development of a powerful centralized state at Great Zimbabwe
The key issue is the assessment of the theories that led to the rise of Great Zimbabwe
Candidates are expected to focus on the following theories
– Proponents K. Mufuka, T.N Hiffman, Greenfield
– The state started as a religious shrine
– archaeological evidence also supports that the claim like soapstone carved birds-totemic, male and female figurines used as teaching aids during the initiation ceremonies, platform excavated in the Great Enclosure was interpreted as an altar
Proponents- D. Chanaiwa, D.N Beach, Huffman, Garlake
Great Zimbabwe controlled long distance trade
Rise in the trade in gold and ivory coincided with the rise of the state
Shift of trade route to ultilise the Sabi Lundi rivers near Great Zimbabwe
Proponents include- D.N Beach, T.N Huffman
ocial complexity as a result of increase in cattle wealth
Archaeological evidence- lots of bones remains
Pull factors at Great Zimbabwe included good rainfall, pastures, abundance of game animals, elephants, timber and granite to build stone structures, nearer to mineral deposits, absence of tsetse fly, water from nearby Mutirikwi river
Push factors- included the fall of Mapungubwe due to drought and famine
5. ‘The Mutapa state was an offshoot of Great Zimbabwe’. Discuss
The key issue is the discussion on the origins of Mutapa state
Candidates are expected to show the extent to which the origins can be attributed to Great Zimbabwe
Candidates may focus on the following;
Depletion of resources at Great Zimbabwe like pastures, wood, salt, minerals, wildlife hence moved North where these were found in abundance
Shifting of trade to the north- trade flourished in the North as the items of trade like minerals (gold), ivory were now found in abundance
Civil wars- Nyatsimba Mutota fled away after failing to succeed his father at Great Zimbabwe. Sub chiefs became rebellious and defied the rulership at Great Zimbabwe e.g. Togwa and Changa leading to civil wars.
Natural disasters- drought and famine ravaged the land resulting in people moving away to look for areas with conducive living conditions
Population explosion resulted in people fleeing for places with spacious room for them to live comfortably hence the North ideal.
. Discuss the role played by Cecil John Rhodes in the colonization of Zimbabwe
The key issue is the discussion on Rhodes’ contribution towards the occupation of Zimbabwe in 1890
Candidates may focus on the following
Rhodes’ involvement in signing of a number of treaties for example the Moffat Treaty, Rudd Concession all which spear headed the ultimate colonization of Zimbabwe
His financial background- he owned De Beers Mining Company. He was filthy rich to a point of sponsoring the colonization process of Zimbabwe
Ability to bribevery corrupt personality- Lotshe abd Sikombi Lobengua’s indunas were bribed
Ability to mobilize military support- published in the new posts with lucrative benefits
Cape to Cairo dream- aimed at painting Africa red. Hence was geared towards having a railway line stretching from Cape to Cairo. Thus for this project to succeed all Nations through which the line was to pass through were to be colonized.
Belief in the existence of the 2ND Rand- he had high hopes of the 2ND Rand following the discovery of diamonds in South Africa. The belt was assumed to be moving to the north across the Limpopo River
Rhodes’ imperialism and his racist bigotry- hoped to create a large British empire; hence Southern Africa became an eyesore.
7. To what extent did the Economic Structural Programme (ESAP) achieved its objectives in Zimbabwe by the mid 1990s.
SAP is a top-down economic strategy which is designed to resuscitate an economy using massive doses of foreign exchange (acquired mostly through loans) and hugely increased exports (David Coltart, 1992).
The idea being that the massive injection of foreign capital will enable domestic industry to re-gear itself and thereafter perpetuate economic recovery and growth by dramatically increasing export earnings, and therefore foreign earnings which in turn are used to repay the loans incurred to pay for the initial injection of capital and to build a healthy balance of payments situation for the future.
Due to economic failures, unemployment on the rise in the Zimbabwe government in especially in 1990s period efforts were made to make changes with the hope of bringing positive changes. With the recommendations of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1991 the government of Zimbabwe adopted ESAP which is a market led reform programme.
The candidates need understand and the objectives of ESAP in order to assess the extent to which the objectives were achieved by the mid 1990s.
These are the objectives of ESAP in the period 1991-1995;
•Ismi (2004) argues that the main aims of ESAP were privatization of public institutions, reducing trade tariffs and import duties (trade liberalization), eliminating foreign currency controls, removing protection for manufacturing sectors, de-regulating labour markets, lowering the minimum wage, ending employment security, cutting the fiscal deficit, reducing tax rate, and de-regulation.
• Achieve annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of 5 percent
•Raise savings to 25 per cent of GDP
•Raise investments to 25 per cent of GDP
•Achieve export growth of 9 percent per annum
•Reduce the budget deficit from over 10 per cent of GDP to 5 per cent by 1995
educe inflation from 17.7 per cent to 10 per cent by 1995
• The mining industry benefitted partly with monetary reforms, trade liberalization and removal of investment controls. The removal of import permits ensured that inputs such as chemicals, spares for equipment and machinery, explosives and replacement capital were acquired more easily.
• Savings and investment ratios partially improved
In as much as the government had set the above objectives it however failed dismally to achieve these goals. The following failures have to be considered;
•Economic growth declined with annual inflation rising to 26.6 per cent
•Employment growth declined to 0.12 per cent
•Manufacturing sector’s share declined from an average 20.4 per cent to 16 per cent
•Many companies closed with retrenchments rampant for instance
•Levels of poverty increased and life expectancy declined due to cuts in social expenditure and implementation of cost-recovery programmes, especially the health sector.
•Droughts of 1991/2 adversely affected the ESAP initiatives like power station in Gokwe under Rio Tinto Zimbabwe which could have assisted livelihoods. Gold panning also affected some programmes in the mining sector
More points can be added.
. Assess the view that corruption has been the major stumbling block to economic development in post independent Zimbabwe.
The above question may appear too challenging for most students although there is a better way to respond to this. It important for one to identify key points of the question which are,
What is to assess
major stumbling block,
post independent Zimbabwe?
-dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery.
-the process by which a word or expression is changed from its original state to one regarded
as erroneous or debased.
-the process of decay; putrefaction
-It is also viewed as the abuse of public resources or public power for personal gain. Corruption Watch is concerned with any such abuse by anyone at any level of government or in business. (http://www.corruptionwatch.org.za/learn-about-corruption/what-is-corruption/our-definition-of-corruption/) accessed on 15 September 2016.
-Corruption has also been interpreted as one of the unholy trinity of dirty money, together with criminal and illegal commercial activities (Baker 2005)
xamples of public resources:
Money, goods, vehicles, buildings and any other resources that belong to the government
Pension funds and medical aid funds
Trade union money and resources
Donations to charities
Common forms of corruption:
A business individual pays a bribe to a government official in order to be given a
government contract or license
The use of government-owned resources, such as motor vehicles, for private purposes
A government official takes advantage of his or her position to favour a family member or business associate for a job or tender contract. This is commonly called nepotism
A police officer solicits a bribe or a member of the public offers one in order to escape lawful punishment
. Evaluate the measures taken by the government of Zimbabwe in its attempt to develop agriculture from 1980-1990 [9155/5, N 2013].
Define evaluate- draw conclusions from examining or assessment
the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.
Agriculture is the backbone of Zimbabwe’s economy in as much as Zimbabweans remain largely a rural people who derive their livelihood from agriculture and other related rural economic activities. It provides employment and income for 60-70 percent of the population, supplies 60 percent of the raw materials required by the industrial sector and contributes 40 percent of total export earnings.
Three main policy frameworks have affected the performance of agriculture in Zimbabwe in the past two decades. First, there was the “growth with equity programme” pursued by the government between 1980 and 1990. It sought to redress the colonial legacy in favour of communal farmers. Second, there was the “structural adjustment market-oriented reforms”, the Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP), adopted in 1991. Finally, with more profound implications for the sector, there was the programme of “fast-track land resettlement and redistribution “For the purpose of the question under study more attention is paid to 1980 to 1990 started in 2000 and currently in progress.
easures taken by Government (1980-1990)
1. Protection of large scale Commercial farmers as a condition of the Lancaster House willing buyer willing seller- this had the merit of leading to the gradual increase in the country’s agricultural exports from Z$409.2 million in 1981 to Z$1.1 billion in 1988
Financial institutions had confidence in large scale commercial farming
Large scale farms drew on cheap, long term finance obtained both domestically and offshore
2. Reconciliation policies pursued by the then Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe
3. Provision of subsidies, free access to seed and fertilizer packs.
In 1986, government took measures to stimulate production through export incentives, introducing the
Export Retention Scheme and the Export Revolving Fund and foreign exchange allocations in favor of exporters. Air transport was improved, the Horticultural Promotion Council was formed, and the communal areas management programme for indigenous resources (Operation Campfire) was established towards the end of the 1980s. In addition, government policy indirectly stimulated export production through the relatively low government-set producer price for maize, which made many commercial farmers diversify into cash crops destined for the more lucrative export markets.
Despite following the above policies, it goes without saying that loopholes could be identified1. Formal employment decreased from 327,000 in 1980 to 284,600 in 1989.
2. Unequal access to financial resources for communal farmers under Agricultural Finance Corporation (AFC) this implies that loans reached only a small percentage of the rural population.
By the early 1990s, the interventionist policies had reached their limit and could not be sustained any further, forcing government to embark on market- oriented reforms including in agriculture. The market reforms adopted in 1991 were aimed at market deregulation, liberalization and export promotion (Government of Zimbabwe, 1991).
Examine Zimbabwe’s abandonment of the road to Socialism in 1991
The key issue is an examination of the reasons that led the Zimbabwe government to drop Socialism.
What is Socialism?
Who were the Socialists of the time?
Candidates may focus on the following
Its implementation was contested by some nationalists within the ruling party Zanu PF.
Conditions for the implementation of Socialism as propounded by Karl Marx were not ripe
Parastatals that were fully owned and largely controlled by government failed to perform
Inadequate performance of the economy during the first decade of independent
Limited investment, high inflation
The IMF and World Bank borrowing conditions forced liberalization of the economy.
NB: A balanced essay has to consider internal and external factors to the abandonment of Socialism.
11. why has Robert Mugabe managed to remain in power for such a long period of time?
The key issue is the an examination of the reasons for factors promoting Mugabe’s prolonged stay in power.
Candidates must appreciate Mugabe’s long stay in power despite the external threats and internal opposition. They may include the following measures
Control of media
Weak opposition political parties’ e.g ZUM, ZUD (Zimbabwe Union of Democrats), MDC-T, ZAPU, ZIMPF
Use of state machinery
Control of security forces
Liberation war credentials
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Isaacman AF (1972). Mozambique, The Africanisation of a European Institution: The Zambezi Prazos, pp. 1780-1902, The University of Wisconsin Press, Milwaukee.
Msindo, E (2004). “Ethnicity in Matabeleland, Zimbabwe: A Study of Ndebele-Kalanga Relations, 1860s-1990s.” Ph.D. diss., University of Cambridge.
Mudenge SIG (1986). Christian Education at the Mutapa court, Zimbabwe Publishing House, Harare.
Mudenge SIG (1988). A Political History of Munhumutapa, Zimbabwe
Publishing House, Harare. pp. 25-44
Mudenge S.I (1974). The Journal of African History, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 373-391Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/180666 accessed on 5 January 2017.
Ntaganzwa I Bautu theory’s troubling issued: a close examination of Bantu theory and many of its unanswered questions European Centre for Research, Training and Development UK (www.ea-journals.org), Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 23-33
Ranger, Terence. Voices from the Rocks: Nature, Culture and History in the Matopos Hills of Zimbabwe. Harare: Baobab, 1999.
Ranger, Terence. “The Invention of Tradition Revisited: The Case of Colonial Africa.” in Ranger, Terence and Vaughan, Olufemi. (eds.). Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth-Century Africa: Essays in Honour of A. H. M. Kirk-Greene. London: Macmillan, 1993): 62-111.
Ranger, Terence. Revolt in Southern Rhodesia: A Study in African Resistance. London: Heinemann,
Rodney W (1973). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Published by: Bogle-L’Ouverture Publications, London and Tanzanian Publishing House, Dar-Es-Salaam, Transcript from 6th reprint, 1983; Transcribed: by Joaquin Arriola.
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